Achondroplasia is a bone growth disorder that causes disproportionate dwarfism. Dwarfism is defined as a condition of short stature as an adult. People with achondroplasia are short in stature with a normal sized torso and short limbs. It is the most common type of disproportionate dwarfism.
The disorder occurs in approximately one in 25,000 live births, according to the Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). It is as common in males as females.
During early fetal development, much of the skeleton is made up of cartilage. Normally, most cartilage converts to bone. However, in people with dwarfism, a lot of the cartilage does not convert. This is caused by mutations in the FGFR3 gene.
The FGFR3 gene instructs the body to make a protein necessary for bone growth and maintenance. The mutations cause the protein to be overactive. This interferes with normal skeletal development.
In more than 80 percent of cases, achondroplasia is not inherited, according to the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI). These cases are caused by spontaneous mutations in the FGFR3 gene.
About 20 percent of cases are inherited. The mutation follows an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. This means that only one parent needs to pass down a defective FGFR3 gene for a child to have achondroplasia.
If one parent has the condition, the child has a 50 percent chance of getting it. If both parents have the condition, the child has:
If there is any history of achondroplasia in your family, you may want to consider genetic testing prior to becoming pregnant so that you fully understand your future childs health risks.
People with achondroplasia generally have normal intelligence levels. Their abnormalities are only physical.
At birth, a child with this condition will likely have:
Health problems an infant may have include:
Children and adults with achondroplasia may:
The average height for adults with achondroplasia is 4 feet, 4 inches for males and 4 feet, 1 inch for females, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH, 2011). It is rare for an adult with achondroplasia to reach 5 feet in height.
Your doctor may diagnose your child with achondroplasia while you are pregnant or after your infant is born.
Some characteristics of achondroplasia are detectable during an ultrasound. These include hydrocephalus or an abnormally large head. If your doctor suspects achondroplasia, genetic tests may be ordered. This tests look for the defective FGFR3 gene in a sample of amniotic fluid.
Your doctor can diagnose your child by looking at his or her features. The doctor may also order X-rays to measure the length of your infants bones. This can help confirm a diagnosis. Blood tests may also be ordered to look for the defective FGFR3 gene.
There is no cure or specific treatment for achondroplasia. If any complications arise, then your doctor will address those issues. For example, antibiotics are given for ear infections and surgery may be performed in severe cases of spinal stenosis.
Some doctors use growth hormones to increase the growth rate of a childs bones. However, their long-term effects on height have not yet been established.
According to NYU Langone Medical Center, most people with achondroplasia have a normal life span. However, there is a slightly increased risk of death during the first year of life (NYU, 2011 ). There may also be an increased risk of heart disease later in life.
People with achondroplasia may need to make some physical adaptations, such as avoiding impact sports that could damage the spine. However, they can still grow up and have a full and interesting life.