It is very important to know how to cope with illness if you have diabetes or know or care for somebody with diabetes. If in doubt, always seek advice from your doctor or nurse straightaway.
Any illness or other type of stress will raise your blood sugar (glucose) levels, even if you are off your food or eating less than usual. People with diabetes are unable to produce more insulin to control the glucose level. The increased glucose level can make you become very dry (dehydrated).
Acting quickly and following advice helps to keep your glucose levels in the normal range or only sightly high.
Because it can sometimes be very difficult to control your blood glucose levels, treatment in hospital may be needed. Hospital treatment may also be needed if you become very dry.
Diabetes mellitus (just called diabetes from now on) occurs when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood becomes higher than normal. There are two main types of diabetes - type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
After you eat, various foods are broken down in your gut into sugars. The main sugar is called glucose which passes through your gut wall into your bloodstream. However, to remain healthy, your blood glucose level should not go too high or too low.
So, when your blood glucose level begins to rise (after you eat), the level of a hormone called insulin should also rise. Insulin works on the cells of your body and makes them take in glucose from the bloodstream. Some of the glucose is used by the cells for energy, and some is converted into glycogen or fat (which are stores of energy). When the blood glucose level begins to fall (between meals), the level of insulin falls. Some glycogen or fat is then converted back into glucose which is released from the cells into the bloodstream.
Insulin is a hormone that is made by cells called beta cells. These are part of little islands of cells (islets) within the pancreas. Hormones are chemicals that are released into the bloodstream and work on various parts of the body.
When a person with diabetes is unwell the sugar level in the blood tends to increase. This can happen even with a very mild illness such as the common cold. The blood sugar (glucose) may go up even if you are not eating properly or are being sick (vomiting) or have loose or watery poo (diarrhoea). The increase in blood sugar may make you very dry (dehydrated).
Contact your GP or practice nurse for advice if you are not sure. You may also need treatment for the illness that is making you feel unwell.
If you check your blood sugar (glucose) levels then these checks should be more regular. A practice nurse or district nurse can help with checking blood glucose levels, especially if you don't usually check them regularly.
Continue eating as normally as possible. If you don't feel like eating, replace your solid food with soup, milk, ice cream, fruit juice, sugar or honey.
It is very important to drink as much sugar-free liquid as possible. This will help you to feel better and help to keep control of your diabetes. Aim to have a glass of water every hour and three litres in 24 hours.
You should seek medical advice if:
INSULIN SHOULD NEVER BE STOPPED. Your blood sugar (glucose) may go up when you are unwell, even if you are not eating much.
You must check your blood sugar levels more regularly. You may need to check your blood glucose every four hours or even more often. If you are not sure then contact your GP or diabetes specialist nurse for advice.
You should also check your urine for ketones at least once or twice each day. Ketones are made when you break down fat in your body. Ketones may appear in the blood and urine due to starvation or because of a lack of insulin. The presence of ketones in the urine may be a warning of diabetic ketoacidosis.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes. Large amounts of ketones are released into the blood. The high level of ketones causes blood acidity, which is harmful to the body. Ketoacidosis is a life-threatening emergency which needs to be treated quickly.
Reduce your dose of insulin back to your usual dose when the blood glucose levels return to normal.
Steroids tablets (for example, prednisolone) are very important for treating some illnesses, such as severe asthma. Blood sugar (glucose) levels may increase when you are taking steroids, especially steroid tablets or injections.
It is very important not to stop taking the steroids but you should check your blood glucose levels regularly. Always get advice form your GP if you have diabetes and need to take steroid tablets. Your GP may need to increase or change your diabetes medication while you are taking steroids.