Onychomycosis

Onychomycosis - What is Onychomycosis?

Onychomycosis (also known as "Dermatophytic onychomycosis," "Ringworm of the nail," It is the most common disease of the nails and constitutes about a half of all nail abnormalities.

This condition may affect toenails or fingernails, but toenail infections are particularly common. The prevalence of onychomycosis is about 6-8% in the adult population. 

Risk factors for onychomycosis include family history, increasing age, poor health, prior trauma, warm climate, participation in fitness activities, immunosuppression (eg, HIV, drug induced), communal bathing, and occlusive footwear.

There are four classic types of onychomycosis:

Distal subungual onychomycosis: The most common form of ''tinea unguium'' usually caused by ''Trichophyton rubrum'', which invades the nail bed and the underside of the nail plate.

White superficial onychomycosis: Caused by fungal invasion of the superficial layers of the nail plate to form "white islands" on the plate. Accounts for only 10 percent of onychomycosis cases.

Proximal subungual onychomycosis: Fungal penetration of the newly formed nail plate through the proximal nail fold. It is the least common form of ''tinea unguium'' in healthy people but found more commonly when the patient is immunocompromised.

Candidal onychomycosis: Candida species invade fingernails usually occurring in persons who frequently immerse their hands in water. This normally requires the prior damage of the nail by infection or trauma.

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Onychomycosis Symptoms

The nail plate can have a thickened, yellow, or cloudy appearance.

The nails can become rough and crumbly, or can separate from the nail bed.

There is usually no pain or other bodily symptoms, unless the disease is severe.

Dermatophytids are fungus-free skin lesions that sometimes form as a result of a fungus infection in another part of the body.

This could take the form of a rash or itch in an area of the body that is not infected with the fungus.

Dermatophytids can be thought of as an allergic reaction to the fungus.

Patients with onychomycosis may experience significant psychosocial problems due to the appearance of the nail.

This is particularly increased when fingernails are affected.

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Onychomycosis Causes

The causative pathogens of onychomycosis include dermatophytes, Candida, and non-dermatophytic molds.

Dermatophytes are the fungi most commonly responsible for onychomycosis in the temperate western countries; meanwhile, Candida and non-dermatophytic moulds are more frequently involved in the tropics and subtropics with a hot and humid climate.

Dermatophytes

''Trichophyton rubrum'' is the most common dermatophyte involved in onychomycosis. Other dermatophytes that may be involved are ''Trichophyton interdigitale'', ''Epidermophyton floccosum'', ''Trichophyton violaceum'', ''Microsporum gypseum'', ''Trichophyton tonsurans'', ''Trichophyton soudanense'' (considered by some to be an African variant of ''T. rubrum'' rather than a full-fledged separate species) and the cattle ringworm fungus ''Trichophyton verrucosum''.

A common outdated name that may still be reported by medical laboratories is ''Trichophyton mentagrophytes'' for ''T. interdigitale''.

The name ''T. mentagrophytes'' is now restricted to the agent of favus skin infection of the mouse; though this fungus may be transmitted from mice and their danders to humans, it generally infects skin and not nails.

Other

Other causative pathogens include Candida and non-dermatophytic moulds, in particular members of the mould generation Scytalidium (name recently changed to Neoscytalidium), Scopulariopsis, and Aspergillus.

Candida mainly cause fingernail onychomycosis in people whose hands are often submerged in water. Scytalidiummainly affects people in the tropics, though it persists if they later move to areas of temperate climate.

Other molds more commonly affect people older than 60 years, and their presence in the nail reflects a slight weakening in the nail's ability to defend itself against fungal invasion.

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Onychomycosis Diagnosis

To avoid misdiagnosis as nail psoriasis, lichen planus, contact dermatitis, trauma, nail bed tumor or yellow nail syndrome, laboratory confirmation may be necessary.

The three main approaches are potassium hydroxide smear, culture and histology.

This involves microscopic examination and culture of nail scrapings or clippings.

Recent results indicate that the most sensitive diagnostic approaches are direct smear combined with histological examination, and nail plate biopsy using periodic acid-Schiff stain.

To reliably identify nondermatophyte moulds several samples may be necessary.

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Onychomycosis Treatments

Treatment of onychomycosis is challenging because the infection is embedded within the nail and is difficult to reach.

As a result full removal of symptoms is very slow and may take a year or more.

Pharmacological

Most treatments are either systemic antifungal medications such as terbinafine and itraconazole, or topical such as nail paints containing ciclopirox or amorolfine.

There is also evidence for combining systemic and topical treatments.

For superficial white onychomycosis systemic rather than topical antifungal therapy is advised.

Relative effectiveness of treatments

In July 2007 a meta-study reported on clinical trials for topical treatments of fungal nail infections. The study included 6 randomised controlled trials dating up to March 2005.

The main findings are:

  • There is some evidence that ciclopiroxolamine and butenafine are both effective but both need to be applied daily for prolonged periods (at least 1 year).
  • There is evidence that topical ciclopiroxolamine has poor cure rates and that amorolfine might be substantially more effective.
  • Further research into the effectiveness of antifungal agents for nail infections is required.

A 2002 study compared the efficacy and safety of terbinafine in comparison with placebo, itraconazole and griseofulvin in treating fungal infections of the nails.

The main findings were that for reduced fungus terbinafine was found to be significantly better than itraconazole and griseofulvin, and terbinafine was better tolerated than itraconazole.

  • A small study in 2004 showed that ciclopirox nail paint was more effective when combined with topical urea cream.
  • A study of 504 patients in 2007 found that aggressive debridement of the nail combined with oral terbinafine significantly reduced symptom frequency over terbinafine alone.
  • A 2007 randomised clinical trial with 249 patients show that a combination of amorolfine nail lacquer and oral terbinafine enhances clinical efficacy and is more cost-effective than terbinafine alone.

Drug pipeline

Most drug development activities are focused on

  • the discovery of new antifungals
  • novel delivery methods to promote access of existing antifungal drugs into the infected nail plate

Active clinical trials investigating Onychomycosis:

Phase III
  • A medicinal nail lacquer, NM100060 from NexMed, contains terbinafine as the active ingredient and a permeation enhancer which facilitates the delivery of the drug into the nail bed where the fungus resides. Commercial sale of the product is cancelled.
  • A comparison of delivery methods for Itraconzole.
  • Safety and tolerability of topical Terbinafine.
  • Laser-based treatments
  • Topical IDP-108
  • Nail ablation with urea paste
Phase II
  • A topical treatment, AN-2690, is being developed by Schering-Plough Corp and Anacor Pharmaceuticals. It is active against Trichophyton species.
  • Posaconazole, taken orally.
  • A topical treatment, NB-002, is being developed by NanoBio Corporation. It has completed Phase II trials.

Drug-free treatments

Newer treatments include use of laser light sources which kill the fungus in the nail bed.

A Noveon-type laser that is already in use by physicians for some types of cataract surgery has proved very effective and painless.

It has even been reported that common laser pointers when aimed close to the nail for several minutes a week can help with the growth and appearance of the infected nail.

A promising new laser treatment for toenail fungus has been cleared by the Food and Drug Administration for the PinPointe FootLaser system, which has been available in the U.S. since September 2008.

Natural remedies

As with many diseases, there are also some scientifically unverified folk or alternative medicine remedies.

  • Australian tea tree oil. There is insufficient information to make recommendations for or against the use of tea tree oil for onychomycosis.
  • Grapefruit seed extract as a natural antimicrobial is not demonstrated. Its effectiveness is scientifically unverified. Multiple studies indicate that the universal antimicrobial activity is due to contamination with synthetic preservatives that were unlikely to be made from the seeds of the grapefruit.
  • Thyme oil has been shown to have a potential to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails.
  • Snakeroot leaf extract has been shown to cure superficial Onychomycosis without side effects

This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article on "Onychomycosis" All material adapted used from Wikipedia is available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Wikipedia® itself is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.