Radioiodine

Radioiodine - What is Radioiodine?

Iodine-131 (131I), also called radioiodine (though many other radioactive isotopes of this element are known), is an important radioisotope of iodine. It has a radioactive decay half life of about eight days. Its uses are mostly medical and pharmaceutical. 

It also plays a role as a major radioactive hazard present in nuclear fission products, and was a significant contributor to the health effects from open-air atomic bomb testing in the 1950s, and from the Chernobyl disaster, as well as being a threatening presence today in the Japanese nuclear crisis. This is because I-131 is a major uranium, plutonium and indirectly thorium fission product, comprising nearly 3% of the total products of fission (by weight).

Due to its mode of beta decay, iodine-131 is notable for causing mutation and death in cells which it penetrates, and other cells up to several millimeters away. For this reason, high doses of the isotope are sometimes paradoxically less dangerous than low doses, since they tend to kill thyroid tissues which would otherwise become cancerous as a result of the radiation. 

For example, children treated with moderate dose of I-131 for thyroid adenomas had a detectable increase in thyroid cancer, but children treated with a much higher dose did not. 

Similarly most studies of very high dose I-131 for treatment of Graves disease have failed to find any increase in thyroid cancer, even though there is linear increase in thyroid cancer risk with I-131 absorption at moderate doses. Thus, iodine-131 is increasingly less employed in small doses in medical use (especially in children), but increasingly is used only in large and maximal treatment doses, as a way of killing targeted tissues. This is known as "therapeutic use."

Iodine-131 can be "seen" by nuclear medicine imaging techniques (i.e., gamma cameras) whenever it is given for therapeutic use, since about 10% of its energy and radiation dose is via gamma radiation. However, since the other 90% of radiation (beta radiation) causes tissue damage without contributing to any ability to see or "image" the isotope, other less-damaging radioisotopes of iodine are preferred in situations when only nuclear imaging is required. 

The isotope I-131 is still occasionally used for purely diagnostic (i.e., imaging) work, due to its low expense compared to other iodine radioisotopes. Very small medical imaging doses of I-131 have not shown any increase in thyroid cancer. 

The low-cost availability of I-131, in turn, is due to the relative ease of creating I-131 by neutron bombardment of natural tellurium in a nuclear reactor, then separating I-131 out by various simple methods (i.e., heating to drive off the volatile iodine). By contrast, other iodine radioisotopes are usually created by far more expensive techniques, starting with reactor radiation of expensive capsules of pressurized xenon gas.

Much smaller incidental doses of iodine-131 than are used in medical therapeutic uses, are thought to be the major cause of increased thyroid cancers after accidental nuclear contamination. These cancers happen from residual tissue radiation damage caused by the I-131, and usually appear years after exposure, long after the I-131 has decayed.

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Radioiodine Production

Most I-131 production is from nuclear reactor neutron-irradiation of a natural tellurium target. Irradiation of natural tellurium produces almost entirely I-131 as the only radionuclide with a half-life longer than hours, since most lighter isotopes of tellurium become heavier stable isotopes, or else stable iodine or xenon. 

However, the heaviest naturally-occurring tellurium nuclide, Te-130 (34% of natural Te) absorbs a neutron to become tellurium-131, which beta-decays with a half life of 25 minutes, to I-131.

A tellurium compound can be irradiated while bound as an oxide to an ion exchange column, and evolved I-131 then eluted into an alkaline solution. More commonly, powdered elemental tellurium is irradiated and then I-131 separated from it by dry distillation of the iodine, which has a far higher vapor pressure. 

The element is then dissolved in a mildly alkaline solution in the standard manner, to produce I-131 as iodide and hypoiodate (which is soon reduced to iodide).

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Iodine-131 Exposure

doses in the continental United States resulting from all exposure routes from all atmospheric nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 1951-1962.]]

Iodine in food is absorbed by the body and preferentially concentrated in the thyroid where it is needed for the functioning of that gland. When 131I is present in high levels in the environment from radioactive fallout, it can be absorbed through contaminated food, and will also accumulate in the thyroid. As it decays, it may cause damage to the thyroid. The primary risk from exposure to high levels of 131I is the chance occurrence of radiogenic thyroid cancer in later life. Other risks include the possibility of non-cancerous growths and thyroiditis.

The risk of thyroid cancer in later life appears to diminish with increasing age at time of exposure. Most risk estimates are based on studies in which radiation exposures occurred in children or teenagers. When adults are exposed, it has been difficult for epidemiologists to detect a statistically significant difference in the rates of thyroid disease above that of a similar but otherwise unexposed group.

The risk can be mitigated by taking iodine supplements, raising the total amount of iodine in the body and therefore reducing uptake and retention in tissues and lowering the relative proportion of radioactive iodine. Unfortunately, such supplements were not distributed to the population living nearest to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant after the disaster, though they were widely distributed to children in Poland.

Within the USA, the highest 131I fallout doses occurred during the 1950s and early 1960s to children who consumed fresh sources of milk contaminated as the result of above ground testing of nuclear weapons. The National Cancer Institute provides additional information on the health effects from exposure to 131I in fallout, as well as individualized estimates, for those born before 1971, for each of the 3070 counties in the USA. The calculations are taken from data collected regarding fallout from the nuclear weapons tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site.

The Japanese nuclear disaster Fukushima I nuclear accidents of March 2011 resulted in significantly elevated iodine-131 levels in foodstuffs from spinach to tap water. These levels have been detected near the plant and as far away as Tokyo. A peak of 190 Becquerels per liter was recorded in a Tokyo water purification facility. On 27 March 2011, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health reported that 131I was detected in very low concentrations in rainwater from samples collected in Massachusetts, USA, and that this likely originated from the Fukushima power plant. Farmers near the plant dumped raw milk, while testing in the United States found 0.8 pico-curies per liter of iodine-131 in a milk sample, but the radiation levels were 5,000 times lower than the FDA's "defined intervention level."

The levels were expected to drop relatively quickly

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Iodine-131 Medical Use

It is used in nuclear medicine therapeutically and can also be seen with diagnostic scanners if it has been used therapeutically. Use of the 131I as iodide salt exploits the mechanism of absorption of iodine by the normal cells of the thyroid gland. Examples of its use in radiation therapy are those where tissue destruction is desired after iodine uptake by the tissue.

Major uses of 131I include the treatment of thyrotoxicosis (hyperthyroidism) and some types of thyroid cancer that absorb iodine. The 131I is thus used as direct radioisotope therapy to treat hyperthyroidism due to Grave's disease, and sometimes hyperactive thyroid nodules (abnormally active thyroid tissue that is not malignant). The therapeutic use of radioiodine to treat hyperthyroidism from Grave's disease was first reported by Saul Hertz in 1941.

The 131I isotope is also used as a radioactive label for certain radiopharmaceuticals that can be used for therapy, e.g. 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) for imaging and treating pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. In all of these therapeutic uses, 131I destroys tissue by short-range beta radiation. About 90% of its radiation damage to tissue is via beta radiation, and the rest occurs via its gamma radiation (at a longer distance from the radioisotope). It can be seen in diagnostic scans after its use as therapy, because 131I is also a gamma-emitter.

Because of the carcinogenicity of its beta radiation in the thyroid in small doses, I-131 is rarely used primarily or solely for diagnosis (although in the past this was more common due to this isotope's relative ease of production and low expense). Instead the more purely gamma-emitting radioiodine Iodine-123 is used in diagnostic testing (nuclear medicine scan of the thyroid). The longer half-lived iodine-125 is also occasionally used when a longer half-life radioiodine is needed for diagnosis, and in brachytherapy treatment (isotope confined in small seed-like metal capsules), where the low-energy gamma radiation without a beta component, makes iodine-125 useful. The other radioisotopes of iodine are never used in brachytherapy.

The use of 131I as a medical isotope has been blamed for a routine shipment of biosolids being rejected from crossing the Canada—U.S. border. Such material can enter the sewers directly from the medical facilities, or by being excreted by patients after a treatment.

Post-treatment isolation

Patients receiving I-131 radioiodine treatment are warned not to have sexual intercourse for one month (or shorter, depending on dose given), and women are told not to become pregnant for six months afterwards. "This is because a theoretical risk to a developing fetus exists, even though the amount of radioactivity retained may be small and there is no medical proof of an actual risk from radioiodine treatment. Such a precaution would essentially eliminate direct fetal exposure to radioactivity and markedly reduce the possibility of conception with sperm that might theoretically have been damaged by exposure to radioiodine." These guidelines vary from hospital to hospital and will depend also on the dose of radiation given. Some also advise not to hug or hold children when the radiation is still high, and a one or two metre distance to others may be recommended.

I-131 will be eliminated from the body over the next several weeks. The majority of the excess I131 will be eliminated from your body in 3-5 days through sweat and waste removal (urination). Smaller amounts will continue to be released over the next several weeks, as you body processes the hormones created with the I131. For this reason, it is be advisable to regularly clean toilets, sinks, bed sheets and clothing used by the person who received the treatment. You may also be advised to wear slipper or socks at all times, and keep yourself isolated from others. This will help minimize accidental exposure by family members, especially children. Use of a decontaminant specially made for radioactive iodine removal may be advised. Do not use bleach solutions, or cleaners that contain bleach for cleanup, because radioactive iodine gas may be released. Airborne I131 may cause a greater risk of second hand exposure, spreading contamination over a wide area.

Many airports now have radiation detectors to detect the smuggling of radioactive materials that may be used in nuclear weapons manufacture. Patients should be warned that if they travel by air, they may trigger radiation detectors at airports up to 95 days after their treatment with 131I.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article on "Iodine-131" All material adapted used from Wikipedia is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. Wikipedia® itself is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.