Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA - What is Recombinant DNA?

Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is a form of artificial DNA that is created by combining two or more sequences that would not normally occur together.

In terms of genetic modification, it is created through the introduction of relevant DNA into an existing organismal DNA, such as the plasmids of bacteria, to code for or alter different traits for a specific purpose, such as antibiotic resistance.

It differs from genetic recombination in that it does not occur through natural processes within the cell, but is engineered.

A recombinant protein is a protein that is derived from recombinant DNA.

The recombinant DNA technique was first proposed by Peter Lobban, a graduate student, with A. Dale Kaiser at the Stanford University Department of Biochemistry.

The technique was then realized by Lobban and Kaiser; Jackson, Symons and Berg; and Stanley Norman Cohen, Chang, Herbert Boyer and Helling, in 1972–74.

They published their findings in papers including the 1972 paper "Biochemical Method for Inserting New Genetic Information into DNA of Simian Virus 40: Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing Lambda Phage Genes and the Galactose Operon of Escherichia coli", the 1973 paper "Enzymatic end-to-end joining of DNA molecules" and the 1973 paper ''Construction of Biologically Functional Bacterial Plasmids in vitro'', all of which described techniques to isolate and amplify genes or DNA segments and insert them into another cell with precision, creating a transgenic bacterium.

Recombinant DNA technology was made possible by the discovery, isolation and application of restriction endonucleases by Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans, and Hamilton Smith, for which they received the 1978 Nobel Prize in Medicine.

Cohen and Boyer applied for a patent on the Process for producing biologically functional molecular chimeras which could not exist in nature in 1974. The patent was granted in 1980.

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Recombinant DNA Applications

Cloning and relation to plasmids

The use of cloning is interrelated with recombinant DNA in classical biology, as the term "clone" refers to a cell or organism derived from a parental organism, with modern biology referring to the term as a collection of cells derived from the same cell that remain identical.

In addition, the Ti plasmid of the bacterium ''Agrobacterium tumefaciens'' can be used to integrate foreign DNA into the genomes of many plants. Other methods of introducing or creating recombinant DNA in eukaryotes include homologous recombination and transfection with modified viruses.

Chimeric plasmids

When recombinant DNA is then further altered or changed to host additional strands of DNA, the molecule formed is referred to as "chimeric" DNA molecule,

In the production of chimeric(from chimera) plasmids, the processes involved can be somewhat uncertain, which was used for its versatility

However, a sampling of initial reaction showed that Humulin was greeted more as a technological rather than a medical breakthrough, and that this sentiment was building even before the drug reached pharmacies.

''The Economist'' concluded: "The first bug-built drug for human use may turn out to be a commercial flop. But the way has now been cleared-and remarkably quickly, too—for biotechnologists with interesting new products to clear the regulatory hurdles and run away with the prizes."

Ultimately, widespread consumer adoption of biosynthetic "human" insulin did not occur until the manufacturers removed highly-purified animal insulin from the market, thereby leaving consumers with no other alternative to synthetic varieties.

This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article on "Recombinant DNA" All material adapted used from Wikipedia is available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Wikipedia® itself is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.