You will have a surgical wound after any type of operation that involves making a cut into your skin, including minor procedures carried out by GPs and other doctors, as well as those done by surgeons. For simplicity, we will refer to surgeons throughout this factsheet.
The position and size of the cut your surgeon makes will depend on the type of operation and surgery you have. For example, if you have keyhole (laparoscopic) surgery, your surgeon will make small cuts to your skin, which will be closed with stitches, clips or skin glue to bring the skin edges together to heal.
There are many different types of surgical wound, so it's important to follow your surgeon's advice.
The process by which your surgical wound heals is complex but can be divided up into three main steps.
Skin edges usually form a seal within a day or two of an operation, but this can vary from person to person and from operation to operation. Closing your wound surgically (with stitches, clips and staples) encourages your wound to heal faster.
You may not need to have a dressing on your surgical wound. The purpose of a dressing is to:
The medical term for stitches is sutures. Other methods that may be used to close your surgical wound include metal clips or staples and adhesive dressings or tapes. The method your surgeon uses to close the cut will depend on its location, size and how strong it needs to be.
Some stitches are dissolvable and you won’t need to have them removed. You will need to have certain other types and also clips and staples removed by a nurse or doctor. If this is necessary, your nurse will arrange a follow-up appointment at your hospital or with your nurse.
You will usually need to have stitches, clips and staples removed between three and 21 days after your treatment. This will depend on a number of things including where on your body the wound is, the type of operation you had and what method and material were used to close your wound. Your surgeon will be able to give you more information about when they need to be removed.
Your surgeon may use special skin glue to close your wound, but this will only be for smaller wounds. One of the advantages of skin glue is that it brings the edges of your skin together quickly – within a couple of minutes – to seal the wound and form a barrier that lowers the risk of infection. This may decrease the time that it takes for your wound to heal. Although the glue is waterproof, don't let your wound soak in water. The glue usually peels off in five to 10 days.
Most surgical wounds will heal without causing you any problems, but it’s possible that your wound may become infected after surgery. If you develop an infection, you will usually be treated with a course of antibiotics but occasionally you may need to have further surgery. See our frequently asked questions for more information.
You're more likely to develop an infection if you:
Your doctors and nurses will do everything they can to prevent your wound from becoming infected, but it's important that you know how to tell if you're developing an infection after you go home. If your wound becomes infected, it may:
You may also have a high temperature.
If you have any of these symptoms, contact your GP. Wound infections can usually be treated successfully with antibiotics if they are diagnosed early. See our frequently asked questions for more information.
There are a number of things that you can do to look after your wound, lower your risk of infection and encourage healing.
You can leave the original dressing in place for up to five days (or for as long as your surgeon advises) providing that it's dry and not soaked with blood, and that there are no signs of infection.
Before you remove the dressing, wash your hands with soap and water and then carefully take off the dressing. Try not to touch the healing wound with your fingers.
Your wound may then be left without a dressing. However, you might like to continue wearing one over the area for protection, especially if your clothing rubs against it. The hospital may give you a replacement dressing for you to use at home. Apply the dressing carefully and don't touch the inside of it. Don't use antiseptic cream under the dressing.
Dissolvable stitches will usually disappear in about one to three weeks, but it can take longer, depending on the type you have. Non-dissolvable stitches, clips and staples are usually removed after three to 21 days, depending on the type of operation you have.
During this time you may see small pieces of the stitch material poking out of your healing wound. Don't be tempted to pull on these. If there are loose ends that are catching on clothing, trim the stitch carefully with a clean pair of scissors. Otherwise wait until they are removed or fall out on their own. If the stitches cause you pain or discomfort, contact your GP for advice.
Your body needs a lot of energy to heal quickly so it's important that you eat well. In particular, you need vitamin C and protein so it’s important that you try to eat a healthy, balanced diet with plenty of fruit and vegetables. Make sure that you drink enough water because if you're dehydrated, your wound may take longer to heal.
It's important that you lose any excess weight before your operation, as being overweight can increase the time it takes for your wound to heal. If you have diabetes, it’s important to take care that your blood sugar is well controlled.
It's usually possible for you to have a bath or a shower about 48 hours after surgery, but this will depend on the particular operation you have – ask your nurse for advice.
Some general points to remember are as follows.
Once your wound has healed, you may find gently rubbing petroleum jelly or a fragrance-free moisturiser into the scar helps to reduce how noticeable it is. There is also some evidence that using a cream or ointment that contains arnica can help wound healing, but you shouldn’t use it on broken skin or if you have a skin condition. Always speak to your GP or surgeon before using any herbal remedies. Silicone gel sheets are also sometimes used to improve the appearance of scars, but there is only evidence for their effectiveness on certain types of scars.
Once you get home, if you have any concerns about your surgical wound, contact your hospital or GP.
Visit your hospital or GP to confirm if you have an abscess. If you do, you‘re likely to need to have the pus drained from it.
An abscess is a collection of pus and infected material that can occur anywhere in or on your body. It’s likely to be swollen and painful, and you may also have a fever.
If you get an infection in your surgical wound, it can lead to the development of an abscess. This happens because part of your immune system’s reaction to the infection is to produce pus – if this collects under your skin, it will form an abscess. An abscess can take some time to form, so it may not have developed before you go home after surgery.
If you’re diagnosed with a wound abscess, you will need to have treatment otherwise you may be at risk of more serious complications (for example the abscess could burst). If your abscess isn’t very big or deep, it may be possible to treat it with antibiotics. However, you will usually need to have it drained of pus and cleaned to remove damaged or infected tissue. You may be given antibiotics to take after your abscess has been drained but this is usually only if the infection has spread.
If you have a deeper abscess, for example in your abdomen (tummy), you may need to have surgery to drain and clean it. Alternatively you may have a CT or ultrasound scan so that a drain can be inserted through a thin tube using the images to guide it.
Cellulitis is an infection of the deeper layer of your skin. It usually affects your face or lower legs.
Cellulitis is a bacterial infection of your skin. Your skin usually has many bacteria living on it and these don't cause problems. However, if your skin is damaged these bacteria can enter your body and grow.
If your wound becomes infected you may notice that it becomes red, inflamed or swollen. If you have cellulitis, you may also have flu-like symptoms such as:
If you have any of these symptoms, see your GP. He or she may prescribe you antibiotics. If your infection is severe, you may need to go into hospital for treatment.
You can help to prevent cellulitis by cleaning your wound properly and watching for symptoms of an infection. You should also try to stay healthy. If you're unwell or if you have a condition or treatment that affects your immune system, you're more likely to get an infection.
The term 'superbug' is used to refer to a type of bacterium that has become resistant to the antibiotic that would usually be used to treat it. It can also be used to refer to healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). These are infections that you catch in hospital or as a result of healthcare treatment.
HCAIs include resistant strains of bacteria (sometimes called 'superbugs') as well as infections that arise as a result of other treatments, such as surgery. There are many bacteria that cause HCAIs, but some of the most common include:
If you become infected with a resistant bacterium, you will be treated with alternative antibiotics that are effective against these infections. However, treatment is likely to be more difficult and take more time. There is also an increased risk of you passing on the infection to other people as you will have it for longer.
To help prevent the spread of these infections always wash your hands with soap and water before and after visiting people in hospital or a care home. You can use an alcohol gel but these aren’t effective against all types of bacteria.