Omeprazole

oh-MEP-ra-zole

Commonly used brand name(s):

In the U.S.

  • Prilosec
  • Prilosec OTC

Available Dosage Forms:

  • Tablet, Delayed Release
  • Capsule, Delayed Release
  • Packet

Pharmacologic Class: Proton Pump Inhibitor

Uses For omeprazole

Omeprazole is used to treat certain conditions in which there is too much acid in the stomach. It is used to treat gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition in which the acid in the stomach washes back up into the esophagus. Sometimes omeprazole is used in combination with antibiotics to treat ulcers associated with infection caused by the H. pylori bacteria (germ).

Omeprazole is also used to treat Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, a condition in which the stomach produces too much acid.

Omeprazole is also used to treat dyspepsia, a condition that causes sour stomach, belching, heart burn, or indigestion.

In addition, omeprazole is used to prevent upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in seriously ill patients .

Omeprazole works by decreasing the amount of acid produced by the stomach.

omeprazole is available both over-the-counter (OTC) and with your doctor's prescription.

Before Using omeprazole

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For omeprazole, the following should be considered:

Allergies

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to omeprazole or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

Pediatric

Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated pediatrics-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of omeprazole in children 1 to 16 years of age. Safety and efficacy have not been established in children less than 1 year of age .

Geriatric

Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatrics-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of omeprazole in the elderly .

Pregnancy

Pregnancy CategoryExplanation
All TrimestersCAnimal studies have shown an adverse effect and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women OR no animal studies have been conducted and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women.

Breast Feeding

There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.

Interactions with Medicines

Using omeprazole with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Atazanavir
  • Bendamustine
  • Clopidogrel
  • Clorazepate
  • Dasatinib
  • Delavirdine
  • Erlotinib
  • Indinavir
  • Methotrexate
  • Mycophenolate Mofetil
  • Nelfinavir

Using omeprazole with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Armodafinil
  • Carbamazepine
  • Cilostazol
  • Cranberry
  • Digoxin
  • Disulfiram
  • Ginkgo Biloba
  • Iron
  • Raltegravir
  • Saquinavir
  • St John's Wort
  • Tipranavir
  • Triazolam
  • Voriconazole
  • Warfarin

Interactions with Food/Tobacco/Alcohol

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.

Other Medical Problems

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of omeprazole. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Liver disease, or a history of—This condition may cause omeprazole to build up in the body.

Proper Use of omeprazole

Take omeprazole capsules or delayed-release capsules before a meal, preferably in the morning. Omeprazole tablets may be taken with food or on an empty stomach. Take omeprazole powder for oral suspension on an empty stomach at least 1 hour before a meal. For patients receiving continuous feeding through a tube, feeding should be temporarily stopped about 3 hours before and 1 hour after administration of omeprazole powder for oral suspension.

It may take several days before omeprazole begins to relieve stomach pain. To help relieve this pain, antacids may be taken with omeprazole, unless your doctor has told you not to use them.

Swallow the capsule and tablet forms of omeprazole whole. Do not open the capsule. Do not crush, break, or chew the capsule or the tablet.

If you cannot swallow the omeprazole delayed-release capsules, you may open it and sprinkle the pellets contained in the capsule on one tablespoon of applesauce. This mixture must be swallowed immediately with a glass of cool water. The applesauce should not be hot and should be soft enough to be swallowed without chewing. Do not chew or crush the pellets .

To use the powder for oral suspension:

  • Empty packet of powder into a small cup containing 2 tablespoons of water.
  • Do not use other liquids or foods.
  • Stir well and drink immediately.
  • Refill cup with water and drink.

To use the delayed-release oral suspension:

  • Empty the contents of a 2.5 milligrams (mg) packet of powder into a container containing 5 mL of water.
  • Empty the contents of a 10 mg packet of powder into a container containing 15 mL of water.
  • Do not use other liquids or foods.
  • Stir and leave it for 2 to 3 minutes to thicken.
  • Stir well and drink within 30 minutes.
  • If any medicine remains after drinking, add more water, stir, and drink immediately .

If you are using the delayed-release oral suspension with a nasogastric or gastric tube:

  • Add 5 mL to a catheter tipped syringe and then add the contents of a 2.5 mg packet (or 15 mL of water for the 10 mg packet).
  • Shake the syringe right away and leave it for 2 to 3 minutes to thicken.
  • Shake the syringe and give the medicine through the nasogastric or gastric tube into the stomach with 30 minutes.
  • Refill the syringe with an equal amount of water.
  • Shake and flush any remaining contents from the nasogastric or gastric tube into the stomach .

Take omeprazole for the full time of treatment, even if you begin to feel better. Also, keep your appointments with your doctor for check-ups so that your doctor will be better able to tell you when to stop taking omeprazole.

Dosing

The dose of omeprazole will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of omeprazole. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For oral dosage forms (capsules, delayed-release capsules or suspension, or tablets):
    • To treat dyspepsia:
      • Adults—20 milligrams (mg) taken once a day for four weeks. Patients may respond adequately to 10 mg once daily, so individual dose adjustment may be considered.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • To treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD):
      • Adults—Usual dose is 20 milligrams (mg) taken once a day for four to eight weeks. Your doctor may tell you to take 40 mg a day for certain conditions. Also, your doctor may want you to take omeprazole for more than eight weeks for certain conditions.
      • Children 1 year of age and older—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor.
      • Children younger than 1 year of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor .
    • To treat conditions in which the stomach produces too much acid (e.g., Zollinger-Ellison syndrome):
      • Adults—60 mg taken once a day. Your doctor may change the dose as needed. Your treatment may be continued for as long as it is needed.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor .
    • To treat duodenal ulcers:
      • Adults—Usual dose is 20 mg taken once a day. Your doctor may tell you to take 40 mg a day for certain conditions.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor .
    • To treat gastric ulcers:
      • Adults—40 mg taken once a day for four to eight weeks.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • To treat ulcers related to infection with H. pylori:
      • Adults—Dual treatment: 40 mg once a day, taken along with clarithromycin 500 mg three times a day, for the first fourteen days. For the next fourteen days, omeprazole 20 mg taken once a day. Triple treatment: 20 mg once a day, taken along with clarithromycin 500 mg and amoxicillin 1000 mg two times a day, for the first ten days. For the next 18 days, omeprazole 20 mg taken once a day.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor .
  • For oral dosage form (powder for suspension):
    • To prevent upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in seriously ill patients:
      • Adults—The first day: 40 milligrams (mg) for the first dose; then after 6 to 8 hours, a second 40 mg dose. After the first day: 40 mg once a day for up to 14 days.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • To treat duodenal ulcer:
      • Adults—20 milligrams (mg) taken once a day for four to eight weeks.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • To treat gastric ulcers:
      • Adults—40 mg taken once a day for four to eight weeks.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • To treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) for erosive esophagitis:
      • Adults—20 mg taken once a day for four to eight weeks.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of omeprazole, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.

Precautions While Using omeprazole

It is important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits. If your condition does not improve, or if it becomes worse, check with your doctor .

omeprazole is sometimes given together with other medicines to treat ulcers. Be sure you understand about the risks and proper use of any other medicine your doctor gives you together with omeprazole .

Omeprazole may cause a serious type of allergic reaction when used in patients with conditions treated with antibiotics. Call your doctor right away if you have itching; trouble breathing or swallowing; or any swelling of your hands, face, or mouth while you are using omeprazole .

Serious stomach conditions may occur while taking omeprazole with antibiotics. Stop using omeprazole and check with your doctor immediately if you are having more than one of these symptoms: abdominal or stomach cramps, bloated feeling, watery and severe diarrhea which may also be bloody sometimes, fever, nausea or vomiting, unusual tiredness or weakness .

omeprazole Side Effects

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:

Rare
  • Back, leg, or stomach pain
  • bleeding or crusting sores on lips
  • blisters
  • bloody or cloudy urine
  • chills
  • continuing ulcers or sores in mouth
  • difficult, burning, or painful urination
  • fever
  • frequent urge to urinate
  • general feeling of discomfort or illness
  • joint pain
  • loss of appetite
  • muscle aches or cramps
  • pain
  • red or irritated eyes
  • redness, tenderness, itching, burning, or peeling of skin
  • skin rash or itching
  • sore throat
  • sores, ulcers, or white spots on lips, in mouth, or on genitals
  • unusual bleeding or bruising
  • unusual tiredness or weakness

Get emergency help immediately if any of the following symptoms of overdose occur:

Symptoms of overdose
  • Blurred vision
  • confusion
  • drowsiness
  • dryness of mouth
  • fast or irregular heartbeat
  • flushing
  • headache
  • increased sweating
  • nausea
  • vomiting

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common
  • Abdominal or stomach pain
Less common
  • Body aches or pain
  • chest pain
  • constipation
  • cough
  • diarrhea or loose stools
  • difficulty in breathing
  • dizziness
  • ear congestion
  • gas
  • heartburn
  • loss of voice
  • muscle pain
  • nasal congestion
  • runny nose
  • sneezing
  • unusual drowsiness

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

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  • Omeprazole Professional Patient Advice (Wolters Kluwer)
  • Omeprazole Detailed Consumer Information (PDR)
  • Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules MedFacts Consumer Leaflet (Wolters Kluwer)
  • Omeprazole Prescribing Information (FDA)
  • Prilosec Consumer Overview
  • Prilosec Prescribing Information (FDA)
  • Prilosec OTC Delayed-Release Tablets MedFacts Consumer Leaflet (Wolters Kluwer)