Generic name: Ciprofloxacin hydrochlorideBrand names: Cipro HC Otic, Cipro HC, Cipro XR, Cipro
Cipro is an antibiotic used to treat infections of the lower respiratory tract, the abdomen, the skin, the bones and joints, and the urinary tract, including cystitis (bladder inflammation) in women. It is also prescribed for severe sinus or bronchial infections, infectious diarrhea, typhoid fever, inhalational anthrax, infections of the prostate gland, and some sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea. Additionally, some doctors prescribe Cipro for certain serious ear infections, tuberculosis, and some of the infections common in people with AIDS.
Cipro may also be prescribed for children with a urinary tract infection or kidney infection when other antibiotics are not effective.
Because Cipro is effective only for certain types of bacterial infections, before beginning treatment your doctor may perform tests to identify the specific organisms causing your infection.
Cipro is available as a tablet and an oral suspension (liquid). Cipro HC Otic is a suspension (ear drops) that also contains the anti-inflammatory drug hydrocortisone; it's used externally to treat ear infections.
Cipro XR, an extended-release form of the drug, is used to treat cystitis, urinary tract infection, and kidney infection.
Cipro kills a variety of bacteria, and is frequently used to treat infections in many parts of the body. However, be sure to stop taking Cipro and notify your doctor immediately at the first sign of a skin rash or any other allergic reaction. Although quite rare, serious and occasionally fatal allergic reactions—some following the first dose—have been reported in people receiving this type of antibacterial drug. Some reactions have been accompanied by collapse of the circulatory system, loss of consciousness, swelling of the face and throat, shortness of breath, tingling, itching, and hives. Fever and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) are other potential symptoms that should send you to the doctor immediately.
Cipro can be taken with food or on an empty stomach. Cipro should not be taken with dairy products (such as milk or yogurt) or calcium-fortified juices alone; however, Cipro may be taken with a meal that contains these products. Drink plenty of fluids while taking Cipro XR to prevent crystals from forming in your urine.
Like other antibiotics, Cipro works best when there is a constant amount in the blood and urine. To help keep the level constant, try not to miss any doses, and take them at approximately the same time every day.
Your doctor will only prescribe Cipro to treat a bacterial infection; it will not cure a viral infection, such as the common cold. It's important to take the full dosage schedule of Cipro, even if you're feeling better in a few days. Not completing the full dosage schedule may decrease the drug's effectiveness and increase the chances that the bacteria may become resistant to Cipro and similar antibiotics.
If you are taking the oral suspension, be sure to shake the bottle vigorously for 15 seconds before each dose. Swallow without chewing the microcapsules in the suspension. Reclose the bottle completely, following the instructions on the cap.
Do not use Cipro HC Otic suspension in your eyes, and avoid contaminating the dropper by letting it touch your ears, fingers, or other surfaces. To administer the ear drops:
Warm the otic suspension by holding the bottle in your hand for a minute or two; putting a cold suspension into the ear can cause dizziness.
Have the person lie down with the affected ear up.
Shake the bottle, then position the filled dropper above the entrance to the ear canal.
Squeeze 3 drops into the ear. The person should not get up for 30 to 60 seconds after the drops have been given.
Throw away any suspension that remains after treatment is finished.
Side effects cannot be anticipated. If any develop or change in intensity, inform your doctor as soon as possible. Only your doctor can determine if it is safe for you to continue taking Cipro.
If you are sensitive to or have ever had an allergic reaction to Cipro or certain other antibiotics of this type such as norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and trovafloxacin, you should not take Cipro XR. Make sure that your doctor is aware of any drug reactions that you have experienced.
Cipro HC Otic suspension should not be used on anyone whose eardrum is perforated or who has a viral infection of the ear.
Cipro may cause you to become dizzy or light-headed; therefore, you should not drive a car, operate dangerous machinery, or participate in any hazardous activity that requires full mental alertness until you know how the drug affects you.
Continued or prolonged use of Cipro XR may result in a growth of bacteria that do not respond to Cipro XR and can cause a secondary infection. Therefore, it is important that your doctor monitor your condition on a regular basis.
Cipro can cause increased pressure within the brain. Convulsions have been reported in people receiving the drug. If you experience a seizure or convulsion, notify your doctor immediately.
This medication may stimulate the central nervous system, which may lead to tremors, restlessness, light-headedness, confusion, depression, and hallucinations. If these reactions occur, consult your doctor at once. Other central nervous system reactions include nervousness, agitation, insomnia, anxiety, nightmares, and paranoia.
If you have a known or suspected central nervous system disorder such as epilepsy or hardening of the arteries in the brain, make sure your doctor knows about it when prescribing Cipro.
Remember to stop taking Cipro and see your doctor at the first hint of an allergic reaction (see "Most important fact about Cipro XR"). Also call your doctor if you develop diarrhea. Antibiotics such as Cipro occasionally trigger a form of diarrhea that needs a doctor's attention.
Rare cases of peripheral neuropathy (changes or disturbances of the nervous system) have been reported with this type of antibiotic. Contact your doctor if you experience muscle weakness, paralysis, pain or numbness, a burning sensation, or a "pins and needles" sensation.
You may become more sensitive to light while taking Cipro XR. Try to stay out of the sun as much as possible.
People taking Cipro have been known to suffer torn tendons. If you feel any pain or inflammation in a tendon area, stop taking the drug and call your doctor; you should rest and avoid exercise. You may need surgery to repair the tendon.
If you must take Cipro for an extended period of time, your doctor will probably order blood tests and tests for urine, kidney, and liver function. If you are taking Cipro to treat gonorrhea, the doctor should test you for syphilis after 3 months.
Serious and fatal reactions have occurred when Cipro was taken in combination with theophylline. These reactions have included cardiac arrest, seizures, status epilepticus (continuous attacks of epilepsy with no periods of consciousness), and respiratory failure.
The following can interfere with the absorption of Cipro and should be taken no less than 6 hours before or 2 hours after a dose:Antacids containing magnesium and aluminumCarafateSupplements and other products containing calcium, iron, or zincVidex chewable tablets and pediatric powder
You should also avoid taking Cipro with milk or yogurt alone, though calcium taken as part of a full meal has no significant effect on the drug.
Cipro may increase the effects of caffeine.
If Cipro is taken with certain other drugs, the effects of either could be increased, decreased, or altered. These drugs include:CyclophosphamideCyclosporineGlyburideMethotrexateMetoclopramideMetoprololPhenytoinProbenecidWarfarin
Certain nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), with the exception of aspirin, could cause convulsions when combined with high doses of this type of antibiotic.
Although there's reason to believe that Cipro poses little danger during pregnancy, its effects have not been adequately studied. If you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant, notify your doctor immediately. Cipro does appear in breast milk when it's taken internally, and could affect a nursing infant. If Cipro XR is essential to your health, your doctor may advise you to discontinue breastfeeding your baby until your treatment is finished.
If you have kidney problems, your doctor may prescribe dosages lower than the ones listed below.
Note that if you're using the oral suspension, 1 teaspoonful of 5% suspension equals 250 milligrams and 1 teaspoonful of 10% suspension equals 500 milligrams.
For Cipro Tablets and Oral Liquid
Urinary Tract Infections: The usual adult dosage is 250 milligrams taken every 12 hours. Complicated infections, as determined by your doctor, may require 500 milligrams taken every 12 hours. Treatment usually lasts 7 to 14 days.
Cystitis (Bladder Inflammation) in Women: The usual dosage is either 100 milligrams or 250 milligrams every 12 hours. Treatment usually lasts 3 days.
Lower Respiratory Tract, Skin, Bone, and Joint Infections: The usual recommended dosage is 500 milligrams taken every 12 hours. Complicated infections, as determined by your doctor, may require a dosage of 750 milligrams taken every 12 hours. Treatment usually lasts 7 to 14 days, except for bone and joint infections, which require 4 to 6 weeks.
Infectious Diarrhea; Typhoid Fever; Sinus, Prostate, and Abdominal Infections: The recommended dosage is 500 milligrams taken every 12 hours. Treatment lasts 5 to 7 days for diarrhea, 10 days for typhoid fever and sinus infections, 7 to 14 days for abdominal infections, and 28 days for prostate infections.
Inhalational Anthrax: For adults, the recommended dosage is 500 milligrams taken every 12 hours. Children's doses are calculated at a rate of 15 milligrams per 2.2 pounds of body weight up to a maximum of 500 milligrams per dose. Treatment continues for 60 days.
Gonorrhea in the Urethra or Cervix: For these sexually transmitted diseases, a single 250-milligram dose is the usual treatment.
For Cipro HC Otic
Ear Infection: Instill 3 drops of suspension into the ear twice a day for 7 days.
Cystitis (Bladder Inflammation) in Women: The usual dosage is 500 milligrams taken once daily for 3 days.
Urinary Tract and Kidney Infections: The usual dosage is 1,000 milligrams taken once daily for 7 to 14 days.
CHILDREN AGES 1 TO 17 YEARS OLD
Urinary Tract and Kidney Infections: The usual dosage is based on your child's weight. It should be taken every 12 hours for 10 to 21 days.
Inhalational Anthrax: The usual dosage is based on your child's weight. It should be taken every 12 hours for 60 days.
The dosage is the same as for adults.
Cipro XR is not recommended for anyone less than 18 years old.
There is no information on the symptoms of Cipro overdose. However, any medication taken in excess can have serious consequences. If you suspect an overdose, seek medical attention immediately.